Friday, August 30, 2019
Lifespan Perspective Paper
Lifespan Perspective Paper Introduction This paper will discuss lifespan development and the theories associated with the study. Humans develop according to phases throughout their lives and this paper will address these phases and what to expect and when. People learn from mistakes made in the past and apply these lessons in order to improve their quality of life. The psychodynamic and evolutionary theories will be examined in detail. Also, the significant role of nature and nurture will be addressed.Lifespan Perspective of Development Lifespan development describes the growth that happens from the time an organism is conceived to the time of its death. A human undergoes a variety of changes throughout their lifetime: psychologically, physiologically, spiritually, and socially changes all occur. A mere fetus develops heart beat at around six weeks and from that point on, develops quickly over the remainder of the pregnancy. Each step in life people develop, little by little.Lifespan development provides us with the information necessary to understand the different phases of human life and with this information we are able to better understand what to expect from each phase (Berk, 2012). For example, children often fear the dark and require a night light to sleep, but overtime, this insignificant fear becomes less and less of a concern and eventually most children are able to sleep just fine without a night light. When a child realizes there is nothing to be afraid of, like there are not any monsters under the bed, he or she is able to sleep without the security of a night light.Understanding lifespan development is crucial and allows us to grasp the phases of life. And also, understand children and their needs for security and comfort. Young children often relay on the comfort of a pacifier or a blanket to calm them down or make them feel safe. Parents are able to understand their children and their needs with the help of lifespan development studies and thus, parents feel like they are able to be better mothers and fathers. There are four recognized phases of human lifespan. One, childhood and adolescence; two, early adulthood; three, middle adulthood; four, late adulthood.Natural progressions are expected to occur as a person ages. The study of lifespan development is important because it explains how and why people develop and what reasonable expectations should apply during this process (Berger, 2008). Lifespan Development at Work The study of lifespan development is significant factor in understanding the subject and provides people with many answers and has the ability of preventing people from repeating past mistakes. Over the years humans have monitored history and have used their research to prevent making similar decisions of the past that did not work out like they were intended to (Carson, 2000).For example, sunscreen is used to protect our skin from harmful UVA and UVB rays and ultimately, decrease the possibilities of skin cancer. Before the importance and knowledge of sunscreen was available people did not know the true dangers the sun presented and mostly did not protect their skin accordingly. As a result, many people who spent a lot of time outdoors in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s had a significantly increased rate of skin cancer. Many of these skin cancer victims did not know the dangers the sun presented and how wearing sunscreen could have decreased their risk.If this knowledge was readily available at the time it is almost guaranteed that a large percentage of these people who have worn sunscreen and possibly eliminate their chances of skin cancer all together. Now the threats of sun damage are widely known and discussed and there are a variety of sunscreen-type products on the market for consumers (Berk, 2012). People have learned from past mistakes that the sun does present dangers and can be harmful to our skin so it is important to wear sunscreen and take other appropriate precautio ns.Lifespan development is purposed partially on extending the life of man and as a part of that jaunting task, survival is required. Humans learn from mistakes that have been made in the past, as a part of their challenge to survive. Skin cancer kills some of its victims and therefore, the knowledge that skin cancer presents is crucial and allows people to take the appropriate measures to cut down their risks. This is one simple example of how people learn from history and use inventive ways to improve the future with the information acquired (Carson, 2000).Theories of Lifespan Development: Psychodynamic Behavioral, cognitive, contextual, evolutionary, humanistic, and psychodynamic are the six widely accepted theories pertaining to lifespan development psychology (Berger, 2008). Both Eric Erickson and Sigmund Freud did expansive studies on the psychodynamic theory. In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s studies he focused on the inner being of a person and the unconscious forces that create personality and behavioral traits. His beliefs are that events, like memories and feelings that occur inside of us help motivate our personality and the way in which we behave.Memories are usually positive or negative and conflicts arise from negative memories and thus, creating a feeling that something should not be repeated in order to avoid a negative outcome. The psychodynamic theory focuses on three aspects of human personality: ego, superego, and id. Along with personality, this theory focuses on psychosexual development as well (Carson, 2000). Theories of Lifespan Development: Evolutionary The Evolutionary Theory of lifespan development is another interesting take on the study originally theorized by Charles Darwin and Konrad Lorenz.This theory focuses on evolution and how it specifically relates to human lifespan development. Over the years, a process of natural selection takes place and as a result humans adapt to their environments. Traits are acquired and sometimes altered by specie s in order to thrive. Darwin and Lorenz focus on how heredity influences development and how behavior is a result of our genetic inheritance. Studies that are connected with this theory show a relationship between family members and certain diseases and illnesses (Berk, 2012). For example, mental illness often runs in family histories and can be tracked through heredity.Heredity and the Environment Nurture versus nature is a discussion commonly associated with lifespan development. Environmental factors play a role in how a person develops, but heredity is passed down through a process of inheritance. A child may be born into a poverty-stricken home and raised to live in fear. A socioeconomic situation like this can lead to a life of crime in order to make ends meet. This environment has significant affects on the development of a person, but environments can be changed, if a person is willing to take the necessary steps.Now if a child is born into a family with a history of mental illness the child has a chance of developing a related illness (Berger, 2008). For example, if the childÃ¢â¬â¢s mother has schizophrenia and the child demonstrates symptoms of the disease at an early age and eventually is diagnosed with the disease, this is an act of nature. It is possible to earn a degree, get a better job, and move up to a middle class area, but it is not possible to undo heredity and no longer be schizophrenic. Nature and nurture both play a significant role in lifespan development and have equal importance in the lives of people (Carson, 2000).Conclusion In conclusion, lifespan development describes the growth that happens from the time an organism is conceived to the time of its death. Throughout these years, people develop in phases that can be observed as a result of the study of lifespan development (Berger, 2008). Human beings have learned about the different phases of development and have discovered new ways to do things to guarantee a higher quality of life. Watching history and mistakes that were made in the past are one of the ways the human species thrives and is able to withstand the test of time (Carson, 2000).The psychodynamic and evolutionary theories explain specific thoughts associated with lifespan development (Berk, 2012). Nature versus nurture is controversial debate that can be seen all throughout the study of psychology and many characteristics humans develop References: Berger, K. S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed. ). New York, NY: WorthÃ Ã Publishers. Berk, L. E. (2012). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood (7 ed. ). Allyn & Bacon. Carson, R. C. (2000). Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from,http://www. abacon. com, p85.